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Meet native Oregon women

After American immigrants arrived in the Oregon Territory in the s, representatives of the United States established policies for Indigenous peoples in northeastern Oregon. By that time, the government had honed its policies and protocols in dealing with Native people, which included treaties, war, removal, and concentration on reservations.

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The Native American peoples of Oregon are the set of Indigenous peoples who have inhabited or who still inhabit the area delineated in today's state of Oregon in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. While the state of Oregon currently maintains relations with nine federally recognized tribal groupsthe state was ly home to a much larger of autonomous tribal groups, which today either no longer exist or have been absorbed into these larger confederated entities. Six of the nine tribes gained federal recognition in the late 20th century, after undergoing the termination and restoration of their treaty rights starting in the s. No Native American group in the state of Oregon maintained a written language prior to the arrival of European-Americans, nor for a considerable period thereafter.

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Almost all organization was at the village level, which was based on related males, with their wives and children. Human occupation of the Oregon Coast is being constantly reevaluated, and dates of occupation are being pushed further back. The Siuslawans did not commonly practice the flatten their he, but some few individuals did have flattened he. One important geological event took place on Jan. A monster earthquake calculated at 9.

In the mountains, hunting and gathering were major summer activities. The Siuslawans lived in an environment rich with many types of foods, and were probably in better health than 18th century Europeans. An underbrush of alder and berry bushes was thick and luxurious, making travel arduous. Like some of the Athapaskan people to the south, elk-hide armor was used. Racks along the ceiling stored dried food, baskets, tools, and personal possessions.

Currently, it is believed that people began settling the coast over 10, years ago. Some canoes from the Chinookans, special western or Chinook style canoes were likely acquired through trade, and they were especially good in the ocean, but all coastal tribes were adept carvers in their own right.

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It was possible to fall into slavery from gambling debts, but only the wealthiest people held slaves. Regalia and ceremonial gear were s of wealth, and included woodpecker-scalp headgear, dance costumes, and decorated belts and headbands.

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In the late 18th century, British, Russian and American traders appeared along the coast in increasing s, introducing iron and textiles, but also a wave of disastrous epidemics. Facial tattoos were uncommon.

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Sweat houses were sometimes aboveground and sometimes below ground. Starvation was seldom a problem.

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Coos tradition recalls a visit from a Japanese junk, which returned across the Pacific with some local people as passengers. Ritual purification was carried out for women after childbirth, at first menstruation, for anybody who had killed in battle or in murderor anybody who had handled a cadaver. Each village had a chief or leader, usually a wealthy and respected man who mediated village disputes, imposed fines, and made sure that wealth was distributed to the less fortunate.

Moccasins were only used on long trips — the climate and landscape were so wet that bare meet native Oregon women were more practical. The first smallpox appeared on the Oregon Coast inprobably introduced by Spanish sailors. The coastal tribes would travel up and down the coast trade with neighbors visiting fishing grounds, shell fishing sites, sea mammal hunting sites, and trading with neighbors. The Siuslaw and Lower Umpqua rivers and estuaries were the dominating factor in the local economy, providing fish and shellfish. Its clear that the Oregon Coastal tribes occupied their locations for a long time period, and this created language and cultural cross influences.

They were mainly for river, bay, and open ocean travel. Much of local life was focused on wealth and its acquisition.

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There is ample evidence of Chinese coins and pottery from the northern part of the Oregon coast. Women wore long fiber or hide dresses or skirts, and flat-topped woven basket hats. The roof was gabled with a single ridge pole. Ceremonies and pastimes.

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Occasionally, they hunted seals and sea lions, and any stranded whale was eagerly rendered for blubber and oil. Scholars have suggested that the language is in the Penutian family, but this is in dispute as there are also Salish influences in the language. Little is known of Siuslawan religion, but it probably closely followed neighboring Coosan forms. Coos children The Siuslaw and Kuitsh lived in a mild, rainy, marine climate with ample resources of fish, plants, timber, and game. Gambling was quite common and many peoples would gamble all they had during stick game tournaments.

The Siuslaw and Quuiich were often themselves raided by other peoples for slaves. Bows were made of yew and vine maple, and the Siuslaw held them at a horizontal angle to shoot.

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They followed a seasonal round of hunting and gathering, moving each season to harvest salmon, berries, elk and deer, camas bulbs, fern roots, and shellfish. At the bottom were the slaves, who were rather few in this area. Language The Siuslaw and Quuiich spoke dialects of the same language, called Siuslawan.

They used tightly woven conifer roots for cooking and water baskets, and made open weave clam baskets, and conical fishing trap baskets.

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The Siuslaw toolkit included a wide array of hunting, fishing, and woodworking tools, including toggle harpoons. Gambling, as in all of Western Oregon, was a serious pastime, using beaver-teeth dice, stick game, and shinny pawksh was played during important events, when tribes gathered for trade or for salmon runs. Some people probably spoke several of the nearby languages to facilitate their relationships, or used trade and languages. Clothing was appropriate to the season. However, women married outside their village, and each village had extensive relationships of marriage, trade and alliances with their neighbors.

More likely causes of illness and mortality were injuries from hunting and fishing, and possibly from warfare and interpersonal violence.

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Spanish and Asian ships may have contacted the Siuslawans in the 17th and 18th centuries. They have probably lived in the same locations for hundreds of generations. Both types of shamans were feared for their power and were sometimes killed if they were thought to have killed someone with poison, or if the patient they were trying to heal, died, and the family desired retribution.

Tattooing was practiced, especially among women who marked their wrists and possibly legs. In the warm summer it was minimal, but during rain or cold, tanned hide or plant fiber clothing was worn. The Alsea peoples to the north represented the southern limit of the practice of distinctive head-flattening that was common along the Columbia River to the north.

The interiors were lined with woven tule or cattail mats. Primary fieldwork projects conducted by J. Harrington, Leo Frachtenberg, and George Amos Dorsey, are well known to scholars, but the language is not fully analyzed at this time. Villages combined to meet special threats, like an alien slaving expedition or other meet native Oregon women catastrophe.

Social and political organization. The Siuslaw lived mainly around the estuary of the Siuslaw River, leaving during summer to travel upriver and into the hills of the Coast Range. The Siuslaw utilized landscapes as far as the west of Noti but their eastern border with the Kalapuyans is undetermined. Recent history. The Siuslaw and Kuitsh did not define themselves as a people in a political or even a linguistic sense, in the way that modern nations and ethnic groups define themselves.

Men wore belted buckskin shirts and leggings, and water-repellent capes of cattail or shredded bark were used during the long rainy season. The effect on the Siuslaw is unknown, but probably many villages were wrecked or inundated by tsunamis. The rivers provided a highway into the Coast Range, which lay to the east of the tribal territories.

The population was much more disease-free than their European and Asian contemporaries — there were only about a dozen important infectious diseases native to the Western Hemisphere. Plank houses were semi-subterranean, up to 50 feet long, built of split and smoothed planks. Good fishing was available from a chain of freshwater lakes, including Siltcoos and Tahkenitch Lakes, which lay behind a band of coastal dunes. The whole landscape was heavily timbered, except along the sand dunes.

Head flattening was a prestige marker among the Chinookans and their neighbors, and those without flattened head were looked down upon. Many vitamins and minerals not normally available in northern climates or in the winters could be getting through eating oily fish and sea mammal fats, which stored such nutrients.

Hunting tools doubled as weapons of war. However, they probably did not engage in open-ocean whaling or sealing. Fishing weirs were also woven and installed in bays, estuaries and rivers to trap fish. Clothing and Decoration. Food resources were reliable and abundant, and supported a population of several thousand. Winter was the season for story-telling, when the galaxy of stories from the oral literature were recited for old and new audiences many of these extraordinary tales were recorded by Leo Frachtenberg in his book Lower Umpqua Texts.

The language is related to Alsea and Yaquinna and Coosan languages. The Siuslaw and Quuiich people are therefore of great antiquity. Dances, games and feasts were popular activities at various important times of the year, such as first meet native Oregon women and first salmon of the season. The indigenous landscape was very diverse. It is certainly a rich and complex language, but it is now extinct in spoken form.

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To some extent, this also protected and isolated the Siuslawans. In summer, both peoples traveled annually as far as the Willamette Valley, and there is a tradition of a Siuslaw village in the Lorane Valley, southwest of Eugene.

The Siuslaw and Quuiich built large, high-prowed canoes up to 30 feet long, carved out of cedar logs. Basketry was made with a twining technique.